Climate: UNFCCC 聯合國氣候公約

UNFCCC 聯合國氣候變化框架公約

(United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change)

What is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change?

History, Timeline (

This infographic provides an easy-to-understand graphic representation of the entire UNFCCC process and focuses of various COPs. (Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit, UK)

Two lesser known but very important entities within the UNFCCC mechanism (in addition to IPCC and COPs):

Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) (

Its work has been at the heart of all implementation issues under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement. …its agenda is shaped around the key building blocks of implementation of all these treaties and instruments: transparency, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and capacity-building, and aims at enhancing the ambition of Parties on all aspects of its agenda.

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)

The SBSTA is one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the Convention established by the COP/CMP. It supports the work of the COP, the CMP and the CMA through the provision of timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention, its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.

Explainer: Talk the talk – how to decipher U.N. climate jargon
2019.11.25 | Reuters | Nina Chestney

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


~ The United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.

IPCC Special Reports

The IPCC Special Report: Global Warming of 1.5 ºC (a.k.a. SR15)
2018.10.08 |

The Special Event presentation @ COP24, 2018.12.04 ~ Video recording

Summary for Policy Makers

Analysis / Summary:

In-depth Q&A: The IPCC’s special report on climate change at 1.5C
2018.10.08 | Carbon Brief |

The impacts of climate change at 1.5C, 2C and beyond
Carbon Brief ~ Interactive

The IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land (a.k.a. SRCCL)
(Full title: An IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems)
2019.08.07 |

The IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (a.k.a. SROCC)
2019.09.25 |

The Kyoto Protocol


UNFCCC Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts (2013)

Overall | UNFCCC

Approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries |UNFCCC (Simplified Infographic)

The Paris Agreement

The full text

Key Aspects of the Paris Agreement


Paris Climate Agreement: Everything You Need to Know
2018.12.12 | NRDC | Melissa Denchak

5 Things to Know about the Paris Climate Agreement
2016.01.04 | CRCNA~Do Justice | Kyle Meyaard-Schaap

The Paris Agreement rulebook explained
2018.12.05 | Climate Home News | Natalie Sauer

Navigating the Paris Agreement Rulebook | World Resources Institute

Why Does the Paris Climate Agreement Need a Rulebook? 7 Questions and Answers
2019.06.13 | World Resources Institute | Nathan Cogswell and Yamide Dagnet 

A Brief Guide to the Paris Agreement and “Rulebook”
2019.06 | Center for Climate and Energy Solutions | Jennifer Huang 


Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)
~ The GHG emission reduction pledges by nations, as mandated by the Paris Agreement

Paris tracker: Who pledged what for 2015 UN climate pact?
2016.02.04 Updated | Climate Home News

NDCs and current status | Climate Action Tracker | last update 2020.02

2020 NDC Tracker | Climate Watch

Initial NDC Synthesis Report
New Release: Greater Climate Ambition Urged as Initial NDC Synthesis Report Is Published
2021.02.26 | UNFCCC

Green Climate Fund: Tracking countries’ contributions:…/resource-mobilization


Most countries’ climate plans ‘totally inadequate’ – experts
2019.11.05 | The Guardian | Damian Carrington

Most countries aren’t hitting 2030 climate goals, and everyone will pay the price
2019.11.05 | National Geographic | Stephen Leahy | 
~ “Untold human suffering” is in our future as nations miss their Paris Agreement targets by a long shot. 

Actual report behind the above coverage: The Truth Behind the Paris Agreement Climate Pledges 

The Truth Behind the Climate Pledges
2019.11 | Universal Ecological Fund 
~ Useful charts and info on the pledges by nations

Other Related Reports from UN Agencies

World Meteorological Organisation

WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

Press Release
~ Greenhouse gas concentrations in atmosphere reach yet another high

News report

Climate-heating greenhouse gases hit new high, UN reports
~ Head of World Meteorological Organization says ‘no sign of a slowdown, let alone a decline’
2019.11.25 | The Guardian | Damian Carrington

The State of the Global Climate 2020
Youtube (

UN Environment Programme

Emissions Gap Report 2019

News report:

Earth set to warm 3.2 C by 2100 unless efforts to cut emissions are tripled, new UN report finds
2019.11.26 | CBC News | Nicole Mortillaro 
~ One expert calls findings of 3.2 C warming ‘terrifying’

‘Catastrophic’: Canada set to miss 2030 emissions target by 15%, UN report says
2019.11.26 | Global News | Hannah Jackson

UN calls for push to cut greenhouse gas levels to avoid climate chaos
2019.11.26 | The Guardian | Fiona Harvey 
~ Global emissions must fall by 7.6% a year for next decade to avoid crisis, report says

Emissions Gap Report 2020
Official Press release

News report:

The World Is Headed for 3 Degrees of Warming This Century, U.N. Report Warns—But a Green Pandemic Recovery Could Offer Hope
2020.12.09 | Time Magazine | ARYN BAKER

  • Dense U.N. reports may not make onto anyone’s must read list for the holidays, so think of the United Nations Environment Program’s 2020 Emissions Gap survey as a warning letter from Santa, on behalf of the planet.
  • The report, released today, is published at the end of every year and measures national commitments to reduce emissions against what science says is needed to limit global warming to an increase of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, the goal set out by the 2015 Paris Agreement. This year, we are still firmly on the naughty list, as we have been for the past five years: Despite a brief dip in carbon dioxide emissions caused by the pandemic, the world is still heading for a temperature rise of 3.2°C this century. …”

Adaptation Gap Report 2020

Climate Change and Biodiversity Conservation

**IPBES-IPCC Co-Sponsored Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Climate Change
2021.06.10 | IPBES-IPCC

IPBES/IPCC: Tackling the biodiversity and climate crises together, and their combined social impacts
2021.06.10 | EurekAlert
This news release contains a fair summary of the above report

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